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15mm Late 16th Century





Figures for the armies of the late sixteenth century, a period of incessant warfare that saw the Spanish fighting to retain the Netherlands, intervening in French and Irish affairs and attempting an invasion of England, the English intervening in the Netherlands and fighting an often desperate struggle against the Irish, the Dutch engaged in a struggle for independence and the Germans/Imperials fighting as mercenaries in many armies while fighting off the Ottomans in south-central Europe.

Please note many cavalry codes are available with either the simple horse furniture or the somewhat fancier furniture popular on the continent which had long rump straps. If a code does not have an image, the models are identical to the code that does have an image, just with the different horses.

The Late 16th Century Irish are available on their own page. So are the Ottoman Turks.

Sculpted by "clibinarium." The flags (gorgeously handpainted, often by Rafa) are, sadly, not included.



LATE 16TH C. DUTCH

This range represents the forces of the Dutch provinces in rebellion against their Spanish overlords from the first Dutch armies raised to fight against Spain until the reforms of Maurice of Nassau began to take hold, about 1600. This is the reason the arquebusiers and musketeers are still mostly in felt hats rather than helmets, as required by Maurice's reforms (although even after 1600 the firearms troops are often depicted in hats in period art).

In the beginning of the war the Dutch relied on German landsknecht foot and reiter cavalry, although the landsknechts were eventually phased out. In this early period the infantry levied by the Dutch were mostly arquebusiers. In the late 1570s armies dispensed with the landsknechts and relied on Dutch, English, Scottish and Walloon regiments of foot with 1/3 pikes, 1/3 arquebusiers and 1/3 musketeers. The foreign troops mentioned above, and the Dutch artillery, may be provided from appropriate listings in this range.

At around the same time as the replacement of the landsknechts, lancers of Dutch, English or Scottish origin were adopted as heavy horse -- again, figurines from the English codes may be used as the English or Scottish demi-lancer units in Dutch employ. Some Huguenot cavalry served as volunteers. The lancers were generally supplanted by cuirassiers by about 1590.


CodeContentsPrice (US$)Order/Progress
L16-DUTCH-PKLate 16th Century Dutch Pikemen (x12)$9.99
L16-DUTCH-ARQLate 16th Century Dutch Arquebusiers (x12)$8.99
L16-DUTCH-MUSKLate 16th Century Dutch Musketeers (x )$8.99
L16-DUTCH-INF-COMMLate 16th Century Dutch Infantry Command (x 6)$5.99
L16-DUTCH-CUIR-SIMLate 16th Century Dutch cuirassiers, horses with simple furniture (x 12)$17.99
L16-DUTCH-CUIR-LONLate 16th Century Dutch cuirassiers, horses with long-strapped furniture (x 12)$17.99
L16-DUTCH-LNCR-SIMLate 16th Century Dutch Lancers, horses with simple furniture (x 12)$18.99
L16-DUTCH-LNCR-LONLate 16th Century Dutch Lancers, horses with long-strapped furniture (x 12)$18.99
L16-DUTCH-MTD-ARQ-SIMLate 16th Century Dutch Carabins (mounted arquebusiers), horses with simple furniture (x 12)$17.99
L16-DUTCH-MTD-ARQ-LONLate 16th Century Dutch Carabins (mounted arquebusiers), horses with long-strapped furniture (x 12)$17.99
L16-DUTCH-HGH-COMM-SIMLate 16th Century Dutch High Command, horses with simple furniture (x 3)$4.49
L16-DUTCH-HGH-COMM-LONLate 16th Century Dutch High Command, horses with long-strapped furniture (x 3)$4.49


LATE 16TH C. FRENCH

France in the late 16th century was a mighty kingdom, second in power only to the Hapsburg Empire (and even then only because that empire had united two great nations, at least temporarily). However, it was wracked with discord due to religious and other social conflict, most notably the French Wars of Religion, and this made the "most Christian kingdom" subject to manipulation and encroachment from outside powers. This situation was often extremely complex. By the 1570s, the start period of our range, France had long been engaged in the so-called "Wars of Religion," pitting the crown, the Holy League and the Huguenots against each other, with the Crown and the League often as much as odds with each other as with the Huguenots, until the great monarch Henri IV was able to bring the wars to an (uneasy) end. This range focuses on that end-game, which included several of the great field battles of the French Wars of Religion.

Army notes:
By this period the Huguenot horse had largely gone over to the pistol for which they are famous -- interestingly the white gown the "Millers" were named for is no longer mentioned in descriptions of their equipment or shown in illustrations. (However, we had the cuirassiers converted to be wearing cassocks, for romantics, and they are available as well in the codes.) Catholic and League forces still used lancers as their heavy mounted arm, although these were in decline in terms of proficiency. In the late 16th century there was very little difference between the Archers and the Men-at-Arms in the Ordonnance gendarme companies. The League's heavy lancers would presumably have worn a very similar mix of armour. French infantry in this period had made considerable bounds since the early sixteenth century and the Catholic forces often had fairly capable units of pike supported by shot, the Huguenots typically fielding just shot, with at most a few badly equipped pikemen. It was the League and Crown infantry who typically wore armour. Both sides hired Landsknechts and Reiters, available in this same range, although the Landsknechts in particular were often very unreliable. The Swiss, on the other hand, although no longer the juggernaut they had been in the early sixteenth century, were still the most redoubtable pikemen in the world. The halberds the Swiss use are not illustrated but are the same as those provided with the landsknechts, as illustrated in the listings for those. The Royal Swiss infantry may also be fielded in native Swiss armies of the period, and are based on very detailed eyewitness illustrations of Swiss forces in the "War of the Three Henrys." Note the heavy armour worn by some Swiss arquebusiers!



CodeContentsPrice (US$)Order/Progress
L16-FREN-HIGH-COMM-LONLate 16th Century French High Command (Henri IV, and Philippe Emanuel or Joyeuse), horses with long-strapped furniture (x2)$3.99
L16-FREN-HIGH-COMM-SIMLate 16th Century French High Command (Henri IV, and Philippe Emanuel or Joyeuse), horses with simple furniture (x2)$3.99
L16-FREN-CUIR-LONLate 16th Century French Cuirassiers in 3/4 plate, pistols (Millers or others), horses with long-strapped furniture (x 12)$17.99
L16-FREN-CUIR-SIMLate 16th Century French Cuirassiers in 3/4 plate, pistols (Millers or others), horses with simple furniture (x 12)$17.99
L16-FREN-CASSOCK-SIMLate 16th Century French Cuirassiers in Cassocks in 3/4 plate, pistols (Millers or others), horses with simple furniture (x 12 -- PHOTOS COMING SOON)$17.99
L16-FREN-CASSOCK-LONGLate 16th Century French Cuirassiers in Cassocks in 3/4 plate, pistols (Millers or others), horses with long-strap furniture (x 12 -- PHOTOS COMING SOON)$17.99
L16-FREN-UNARM-PISTOL-SIMLate 16th Century French Pistoliers, Lightly Armoured (Breastplate Only -- Later Huguenots), charging sword in hand, horses with simple furniture (x 12)$17.99
L16-FREN-UNARM-PISTOL-LONLate 16th Century French Pistoliers, Lightly Armoured (Breastplate Only -- Later Huguenots), charging sword in hand, horses with long-strapped furniture (x 12)$17.99
L16-FREN-GENDARMES-LONLate 16th Century French Gendarmes de Ordonnance or Similar Lancers, Mixed Men-at-Arms and Archers, horses with long-strapped furniture (x 12)$18.99
L16-FREN-GENDARMES-SIMLate 16th Century French Gendarmes de Ordonnance or Similar Lancers, Mixed Men-at-Arms and Archers, horses with simple furniture (x 12)$18.99
L16-FREN-MTD-ARQ-LONLate 16th Century French Argoulets or other Mounted Arquebusiers, horses with long-strapped furniture (x 12)$17.99
L16-FREN-MTD-ARQ-SIMLate 16th Century French Argoulets or other Mounted Arquebusiers, horses with simple furniture (x 12)$17.99
L16-FREN-HVY-PKLate 16th Century French Armoured Pikemen (x12)$9.99
L16-FREN-LGHT-PKLate 16th Century French Unarmoured Pikemen (x12)$9.99
L16-FREN-HLMT-ARQLate 16th Century French Infantry Arquebusiers Wearing Helmets (Crown or League) (x12)$8.99
L16-FREN-HAT-ARQLate 16th Century French Infantry Arquebusiers Wearing Hats (Huguenots) (x 12)$8.99
L16-FREN-MUSKETLate 16th Century French Infantry Musketeers (x 12)$8.99
L16-FREN-INF-COMMLate 16th Century French Infantry Command (x6)$4.49
L16-ROYAL-SWISS-ARMLate 16th Century Royal (or Other) Swiss Pikemen, Armoured (x12)$9.99
L16-ROYAL-SWISS-HALB-ARMLate 16th Century Royal (or Other) Swiss Pikemen/Halberdiers, Armoured (x12 with 12 pikes and 12 halberds)$10.99
L16-ROYAL-SWISS-UNARMLate 16th Century Royal (or Other) Swiss Pikemen, Unarmoured (x12)$9.99
L16-ROYAL-SWISS-HALB-UNARMLate 16th Century Royal (or Other) Swiss Pikemen/Halberdiers, Unarmoured (x12, with 12 pikes and 12 halberds)$10.99
L16-ROYAL-SWISS-ARQLate 16th Century Royal (or Other) Swiss Arquebusiers (x12)$8.99
L16-ROYAL-SWISS-COMMLate 16th Century Royal (or Other) Swiss Command (x8, in four poses)$5.99


LATE 16TH C. ENGLISH

In this period English troops were employed on many fronts, fighting in Ireland, assisting the Dutch, and defending the home country from armadas and Scotsmen. The infantry had by this period largely caught up with continential developments, fighting with pike and caliver in large squares, with muskets increasingly employed. However, there were still billmen and longbowmen fielded as well, largely in the militia, and the cavalry continued to rely on lances for combat, even the "Light Horse."

Some notes on the codes below. First, there are two types of Light Horse, one in chainmail with a shield, as shown in several images in Ireland during Tyrone's Rebellion, the other in a breastplate or jack and without shield. Second, please note that the pack contents are different than in the other ranges above. Please pay close attention to the pack contents before ordering. Third, the standardbearer shown in the image for the infantry command is not the one provided in the pack. There was a mould mixup and a pikeman was mistakenly added to the infantry command mould. This has since been corrected. The correct standardbearer looks much like a pikeman but has no tassets or shoulder/arm armour. Fourth, the commander with sword in the high command set should have a straight sword. No sabers yet!



CodeContentsPrice (US$)Order/Progress
L16-ENGLISH-PKLate 16th Century English Pikemen (x8 in four poses)$6.69
L16-ENGLISH-ARQLate 16th Century English Arquebusiers (Calivermen) (x6 in six poses)$4.49
L16-ENGLISH-MUSKLate 16th Century English Musketeers (x12 in four poses)$8.99
L16-ENGLISH-BILLSLate 16th Century English Billmen (x12 in four poses)$8.99
L16-ENGLISH-BOWSLate 16th Century English Longbowmen (x12 in four poses)$8.99
L16-ENGLISH-INF-COMMLate 16th Century English Infantry Command (x9 in three poses)$6.99
L16-ENGLISH-DEMILANCERSLate 16th Century English Demilancers in 3/4 plate with heavy lances (x3 in three poses)$4.79
L16-ENGLISH-LIGHT-CAV1Late 16th Century English Light Horse, type 1 (chainmail and shields) (x3 in three poses)$4.49
L16-ENGLISH-LIGHT-CAV2Late 16th Century English Light Horse, type 2 (breastplate or jack, no shield) (x12 in four poses)$17.99
L16-ENGLISH-CAV-COMMLate 16th Century English Cavalry Command, (x3 in three poses)$4.49
L16-ENGLISH-HIGH-COMMLate 16th Century English High Command, (x4 in three poses -- general officer, subordinate officer, and two heralds)$5.99

LATE 16TH C. GERMANS/IMPERIALS/LATER LANDSKNECHTS

Reiters were the universal mounted mercenary of the late 16th Century. The Spanish army fielded many under the name "Herreruelos." Their infantry equivalent was the German Landsknecht -- that term continued to be used although by this period they might just be called "Germans" or "Fussknechts" but were usually raised the same way. Reiters and Landsknechts seemed to be on virtually every battlefield of the late 16th century.

Note that by this period German infantry were gradually replacing the Pluderhosen with billowy trousers without the vents, but both continued to be widely worn, side by side in the same infantry units, as period art clearly shows.

The Germans fought in large squares of pikemen, and these still included a certain percentage of halberdiers. Accordingly, both German pike sets have the option to be bought with a dozen halberds in addition to their pikes (so the pack comes with 24 weapons and 12 figurines).


CodeContentsPrice (US$)Order/Progress
L16-LANDSK-PIKE-ARMLate 16th Century German/Landsknecht Pikemen in Armour (x 12)$9.99
L16-LANDSK-PIKE-HALB-ARMLate 16th Century German/Landsknecht Pikemen/Halberdiers in Armour (x 12 figurines, with 12 pikes and 12 halberds)$10.99
L16-LANDSK-PIKE-UNARMLate 16th Century German/Landsknecht Pikemen, Unarmoured (x 12)$9.99
L16-LANDSK-PIKE-HALB-UNARMLate 16th Century German/Landsknecht Pikemen/Halberdiers, Unarmoured (x 12 figurines, with 12 pikes and 12 halberds)$10.99
L16-LANDSK-MUSKLate 16th Century German/Landsknecht Musketeers (x 12)$8.99
L16-LANDSK-ARQUEBUSLate 16th Century German/Landsknecht Arquebusiers (x 12)$8.99
L16-LANDSK-INF-COMMLate 16th Century German/Landsknecht Infantry Command (x 8)$5.99
L16-REITER-SIMLate 16th Century German Reiters, horses with simple furniture (x 12)$17.99
L16-REITER-LON Late 16th Century German Reiters, horses with long-strapped furniture (x 12)$17.99
L16-REITER-COMM-SIMLate 16th Century German Reiter Command, horses with simple furniture (x 3)$4.49
L16-REITER-COMM-LONLate 16th Century German Reiter Command, horses with long-strapped furniture (x 3)$4.49
L16-GERMAN-HIGH-COMMAND-SIMLate 16th Century German High Command, horses with simple furniture (x 3)$4.49
L16-GERMAN-HIGH-COMMAND-LONGLate 16th Century German High Command, horses with long-strapped furniture (x 3)$4.49

LATE 16TH C. ARTILLERY, MERCENARIES AND OTHER UNIVERSAL SETS

These models may be used for many or all of the armies on this page -- artillery as well as mercenaries such as Stradiots. (Reiters and Landsknechts are, however, in the German section above.)


CodeContentsPrice (US$)Order/Progress
L16-STRADIOTS-SIMLate 16th Century Stradiot Mercenary Cavalry, horses with simple furniture (x 12)$17.99
L16-STRADIOTS-LONGLate 16th Century Stradiot Mercenary Cavalry, horses with long-strap furniture (x 12)$17.99
L16-ARTILLERYLate 16th Century Heavy Field Gun with Crew$5.99
L16-MASTER-GUNNERSLate 16th Century Master Gunners (x 4, a German, an Englishman, a Spaniard and a Dutchman)$3.99


LATE 16TH C. SPANISH

The Spanish Empire at the end of the 16th century was one of the largest in world history, a titan spanning the globe, administered by the Spanish Crown from Madrid. The embodiment of its might was the invincible tercio, an immovable object on the battlefield. Supporting the tercios were armoured lancers who increasingly came to be replaced by pistoliers as the century came to a close, and foreign cavalry -- German armoured pistoliers (Herreruelos) as well as mounted arquebusiers of various nationalities.

The tercios were large but had more flexibility than is commonly recognized. As they were permanently embodied the officers and men of the tercios had unparalleled experience and esprit de corps. The front ranks were taken by armoured veterans, men new to the unit being positioned in the back, generally with lighter, or no, protection. Many shooters continued to be arquebusiers but increasing numbers of large muskets, fired from rests, were used, and in some armies at the end of the century outnumbered arquebusiers.

Artillery will be available under a common listing as soon as released. As Herreruelos were German Reiters, use those from the German/Imperial/Later Landsknecht listing on this page.


CodeContentsPrice (US$)Order/Progress
L16-SPAN-HVY-PKLate 16th Century Spanish Armoured Pikemen (x 12)$9.99
L16-SPAN-LGHT-PKLate 16th Century Spanish "Pica Seca" (unarmoured pikemen) (x 12)$9.99
L16-SPAN-ARQLate 16th Century Spanish Arquebusiers (x 12)$8.99
L16-SPAN-MUSKLate 16th Century Spanish Musketeers (x 12)$8.99
L16-SPAN-INF-COMMLate 16th Century Spanish Infantry Command (x 6)$4.49
L16-SPAN-CUIR-SIMLate 16th Century Spanish Corazas (cuirassiers), horses with simple furniture (x 12)$17.99
L16-SPAN-CUIR-LONLate 16th Century Spanish Corazas (cuirassiers), horses with long-strapped furniture (x 12)$17.99
L16-SPAN-LNCR-SIMLate 16th Century Spanish Lancers, horses with simple furniture (x 12)$18.99
L16-SPAN-LNCR-LONLate 16th Century Spanish Lancers, horses with long-strapped furniture (x 12)$18.99
L16-SPAN-LT-MTD-ARQ-SIMLate 16th Century Spanish unarmoured mounted arquebusiers, horses with simple furniture (x 12)$17.99
L16-SPAN-LT-MTD-ARQ-LONLate 16th Century Spanish unarmoured mounted arquebusiers, horses with long-strapped furniture (x 12)$17.99
L16-SPAN-HV-MTD-ARQ-SIMLate 16th Century Spanish armoured mounted arquebusiers, horses with simple furniture (x 12)$17.99
L16-SPAN-HV-MTD-ARQ-LONLate 16th Century Spanish armoured mounted arquebusiers, horses with long-strapped furniture (x 12)$17.99
L16-SPAN-HV-CV-COMM-SIMLate 16th Century Spanish armoured cavalry command, horses with simple furniture (x 3)$4.49
L16-SPAN-HV-CV-COMM-LONLate 16th Century Spanish armoured cavalry command, horses with long-strapped furniture (x 3)$4.49
L16-SPAN-LT-CV-COMM-SIMLate 16th Century Spanish unarmoured cavalry command, horses with simple furniture (x 3)$4.49
L16-SPAN-LT-CV-COMM-LONLate 16th Century Spanish unarmoured cavalry command, horses with long-strapped furniture (x 3)$4.49
L16-SPAN-HGH-COMM-SIMLate 16th Century Spanish High Command, horses with simple furniture (x 3)$4.49
L16-SPAN-HGH-COMM-LONLate 16th Century Spanish High Command, horses with long-strapped furniture (x 3)$4.49